National Affairs: BIRMINGHAM: Integration's Hottest Crucible

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. (pop. 360,150), most concentrated heavy-industry city in Deep South, steel mills, iron foundries, etc., set up 1871 in midst of Jones Valley iron ore, coal, limestone; now centers around Tennessee Coal & Iron Division of U.S. Steel Corp. with 25,000 employees, also diversifies into 720 firms, e.g., Hayes Aircraft Corp., which turn out 3,250 products. Ample cheap labor force: rural white in-migrants, Negroes. Negro population: 38.9%, with rising living standards, though only 21.1% of Negro families make upwards of $4,000 a year against 77.2% of whites. Tourist attraction: Vulcan, 55-ft. monument on top of 120-ft. pedestal on Red Mountain...

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