Medicine: Heal Thyself?

Into the Vienna circle of pioneer psychoanalysts, Alfred Adler introduced an odd recruit in 1906. Unlike the Master, Sigmund Freud, and Adler himself (then chief disciple), the new convert was no mature physician but a green-fiery youth of 21 who had not even finished high school, and was making a poor living as a mechanic. His name: Otto Rank.

Freud took kindly to Rank, a fellow Viennese of underprivileged Jewish extraction, encouraged him to finish Gymnasium (equivalent to U.S. high school and junior college) and get a Ph.D. in psychology. Rank served as secretary of Vienna's informal analytic trust and head of...

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