Since his first experience with time, man has devoted some of his most strenuous efforts to measuring and recording its progress. As early as the 6th century B.C. the Babylonians calculated the duration of a lunar month with a margin of error of only 2.2 sec. With the pyramids the Egyptians created gigantic scientific instruments for measuring the solar year, building their sides trued to the four cardinal directions. Using the Egyptian year, Julius Caesar in 45 B.C. made the Julian calendar standard throughout the Roman world. To these scientific measurements, later calendar makers added an overburden of myth, magic and...

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