Into the third-floor offices of the United Appeals campaign in Newark, N.J. every week walks a slight, elderly Negro woman. There she plunks down a dollar—sometimes four—and walks out again. Long ago, she "had the sickness," she explained one time, and some of the United Appeals agencies helped her out; she figured that part of her earnings as a houseworker should deservedly go back into the kitty. Her total contributions this year: $72.

Into the offices of Detroit's United Foundation, a representative of the Ford Motor Co. brings its share: $550,000. From nearly all of Ford's 87,700 employees in metropolitan...

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