Science: Colder than Coldest

One of the firmest hitching posts in science is absolute zero, the temperature ( -273° C. or 0° Kelvin) where vibratory motions of the atoms cease. Generations of physics students have been told that nothing can get colder than 0° K. It gave them a comfortable feeling that here at least was a final point beyond which they need not worry. Recently in Manhattan, Professor Norman F. Ramsey of Harvard University told a meeting of the American Ordnance Association about a new set of laws that must be worked out to deal with a temperature range that reaches below absolute zero.


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