"It's not a purge," snapped a sensitive British government official, "it's a transfer." But to Britons, it was the closest thing to a purge they ever wanted to see. Said Prime Minister Clement Attlee: "No one who is known to be a member of the Communist Party, or to be associated with it [or any Fascist organization] is to be employed in connection with work . . . vital to the security of the State."

Only a year ago, Britons would not have stood for such a ruling. But they had never allowed freedom of opinion to mean freedom of...

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