On his own typewriter Pope Pius XII pecked out a warm greeting to UNRRA Director General Herbert H. Lehman: "May God strengthen your hands, give light and courage to the promptings of your heart — grant you the precious consolation of doing untold good . . . a truly Christlike work."

But kind words alone were not enough for Herbert Lehman, surveying Europe and weighing its relief needs against UNRRA's means to meet them. Normally too easygoing for his own and UNRRA's good, he had been stung by widespread criticism of his giant relief agency. In...

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