In many a European mind the yearning was there, deep and ancient. If the partitions of Europe were dissolved, if a union of nations were achieved—might there not be more peace and plenty than the living could remember? Especially after the wars, when weakened nations struggled to rebuild, the idea grew.

In Britain this winter, Winston Churchill led 21 thoughtful fellow countrymen* in a manifesto. "If Europe is to survive, it must unite," they declared. "Since for the moment governments find it difficult to take the initiative ... let men of good will in all countries take counsel together that...

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