When Italy follows Benito Mussolini out of the war:
> The Germans must choose between defending all of a hostile mainland, withdrawing to northern Italy, or withdrawing entirely into Germany itself.
>In either event, Adolf Hitler will be confronted with a true second front. German troops will face Allied troops at the very gates to Germany and to France.
> Southern Germany, now almost immune to air attack, will be within range of Allied bomber bases (see p. 40}.
> Germany's defenses in southeastern Europe will be disrupted by the loss of the Italian Army. Italian troops, weak in battle,...