Education: Father & Son

In the spring of 1917, when most of the U.S. had its mind on war, a Manhattan college professor named Stephen Duggan had his mind on the peace that would come after. His theory: one big trouble between nations was misunderstanding of each other's ways. Many a well-heeled U.S. youth had studied painting in Paris, or philosophy mit beer at Heidelberg; but practically no foreign students had seen and sampled U.S. ideas and attitudes. His proposal: two-way scholarships between U.S. and foreign universities.

He took his idea to Nicholas Murray Butler, director of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and two years...

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