Religion: What Is Military Necessity?

Two groups of churchmen who have never thought alike about war last week found themselves in agreement. Both had serious objections to the vagueness of "unconditional surrender" and the obliteration bombing of Jap cities.

First to put itself on record was a group prodded by members of the frankly pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation. Sixty religious and educational leaders (including Professor Walter Russell Bowie of Manhattan's Union Theological Seminary, Professor Henry J. Cadbury of the Harvard Divinity School and Professor Rufus M. Jones of Quaker Haverford College) signed a statement describing U.S. raids on Japan as "large-scale massacre ... of defenseless women and...

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