The Germans no longer had much semblance of a line on the Eastern Front, except on maps. They had only bloody, bewildered fragments of armies, of divisions, tossed about and swallowed like debris in a tidal wave. On some sectors, on some days, the Red spearheads covered 30 miles, a creditable pace for a peacetime army on maneuvers. It meant that there were no Germans in their path at those points, or not enough to matter.

Viewed as the result of purely military factors, such a degree of Nazi confusion and demoralization" was fantastic. It was...

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