SPAIN: No Passaran

Spain lay in the cross fire of war. About 140,000 German troops including three Panzer divisions were near Spain's borders. Dictator Francisco Franco refused Adolf Hitler's request for permission to send German troops through to Gibraltar, announced that Spain would defend herself against any attacks from either side. He mobilized an army of some 1,350,000, declared that in the event of any attack on Spain or its possessions, he would seek aid from the enemies of the attacker.

Franco and his generals owed their dismal success very largely to Germany and Italy. Their political philosophies and totalitarian methods coincided. But...