The United Nations sailed 850 ships to French Africa, and lost only one before landing operations began. Last week the British told how it was done.

An armada of protecting planes, which neither saw nor was seen by the convoys, ran interference for the ships. The planes flew from Britain over the Bay of Biscay for 8,000 flying hours, pounced on subs that left bases in Occupied France to intercept the convoy. Said the British account: "Our bombers only thought they were out on the biggest U-boat hunt of the war. They had no idea that just west across the...

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