The Palmer House elevator (in Chicago) stopped at the fourth floor. The doors slid aside and a group of doctors walked in. They were members of Federation of State Medical Boards and of the Council on Education, Licensure and Hospitals of the American Medical Association. Their business was serious; they murmured busily. The elevator remained at the fourth floor.

"You can't ride in these elevators. You will have to step out." The elevator attendant was talking to one of the doctors—Dr. A. G. Fairfax, Negro,...

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