BARUCH PLAN, 1946. Proposed by Bernard M. Baruch, U.S. representative on the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission, the program included international control of all atomic detonations and licensing of all other atomic activities. An international inspection team would check for violations, and its findings would be veto-proof in the Security Council. The Russians objected that inspection could not be reconciled with national security, and the plan was shelved.

"OPEN SKIES," 1955. At the Geneva summit conference, President Eisenhower suggested a bold plan for aerial surveillance of all military installations, including nuclear facilities. The idea...

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