Four years later, Frazier is well again. He has worked for two years on an elite longshoreman's crew that cleans up oil spills, and served for a year as president of his union local. He commutes to work from a new apartment, where he lives with his wife and four-year-old daughter. Frazier owes his stunning turnaround to medication that has brought his mental illness under control, but also to an underutilized treatment known as psychosocial rehabilitation. This approach aims to remedy what many see as a great failing of America's treatment of the mentally ill--once they are stabilized with drugs and released from the hospital, they are too often left to fend for themselves, with no one to counsel them, monitor their progress or help them find work. That has led to much private suffering but also to some public tragedy, as in the case of Andrew Goldstein, a New York City man suffering from schizophrenia who pushed a woman to her death off a subway platform. Goldstein's murder trial ended in a hung jury this month, but the public mental-health system's neglect of him as a ward has spurred calls for reform. Last week New York Governor George Pataki, whose administration has repeatedly squeezed mental-health budgets, proposed spending an additional $125 million for community services.
Instead of abandoning the recovering mentally ill when they leave the hospital, psychosocial rehabilitation nudges them toward jobs, apartments and increased responsibility. Individuals are assigned to treatment teams composed of psychiatric professionals and "life-skills" specialists, who see them as often as three times a day or as seldom as once a month, depending on need. These teams monitor medication and offer both practical help and psychological support in getting former patients back into the working world.
Such programs have been around since World War II, when a group of individuals released from Rockland state hospital in New York started Manhattan's Fountain House, the nation's first "clubhouse" in which the recovering mentally ill work together to run their own lives. But for years the treatment remained "the mongrel group in the basement," resisted by the medical establishment, says Ruth Hughes, director of the International Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services. Today the relatively paltry funds available for treating the mentally ill go mostly to traditional or "medical-model" treatment programs that stress medication and psychotherapy. Psychosocial rehabilitation is used for fewer than 10% of those suffering from serious mental illness. Yet its success rate--those in psychosocial programs have one-third the relapse rate of traditional patients--has started to gain attention. The National Mental Health Association in October 1998 made a strong endorsement by launching Partners in Care, a campaign to replicate successful psychosocial programs around the U.S.
Frazier's ordeal at the bus stop ended when his sister persuaded him to visit the Village, a pioneering Long Beach psychosocial program. There he was found to have bipolar disorder accompanied by paranoid delusions. A staff psychiatrist prescribed the drugs Depakote and Rispiradal and asked Frazier, "What would make you happy?" He replied, "I love to work."
Frazier was assigned a treatment team, which put him to work on the Village's janitorial unit. "Bobby was a fierce worker," recalls Village director Martha Long. Counselors helped him get Medicaid, find an apartment and manage his money. Becoming a longshoreman was Frazier's idea. Like many recovering mentally ill, he is wary of too much stress, so he found work as a stevedore for two days a week. He still stays in close touch with his treatment team, which makes sure he keeps on his medication. But it is the job that has anchored his recovery. "It brought me back to my sense of reality," says Frazier.
While programs like the Village are highly structured and have specific goals, groups like Schizophrenics Anonymous, with 80 chapters around the country, tend to be more informal. S.A. holds regular meetings, similar to A.A. gatherings, to provide men and women left on their own in the community a place to socialize and unburden themselves. Joanne Verbanic, a retired Ford Motor credit specialist who used to hide her schizophrenia from co-workers because she feared discrimination, founded S.A. in 1985 to help others "who felt hopeless and alone." At a boisterous meeting recently, a young woman, Nora Baylerian, admitted "thinking the KGB and Mafia were after me." A woman in her 60s, Marjorie Mott-Hogg, responded with a chuckle, "We've all been there, Nora."