Nobel Prize In Medicine

To two stem-cell pioneers

One trained in surgery then decided he was no good at it. The other was told by a teacher that the idea of his becoming a scientist was "ridiculous." But Japan's Dr. Shinya Yamanaka and Britain's John Gurdon persevered to share this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Gurdon launched the field of stem-cell science in 1962 by proving that adult cells of a frog retain the genetic material needed to produce a new tadpole. Forty-four years later, Yamanaka took that finding to the extreme when he mixed four genes with adult skin cells from mice (and later humans) and...

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